サピエンス全史

サピエンス全史【上・下】

皆さんは、サピエンス全史という本を読まれましたか?

歴史書の概念をはるかに超える、かなり引いてみた歴史書。

生物学を専攻していた私にとっては出た当初は、科学雑誌を読み漁ったり物理学の書籍を読んでいることが多く、最近までずっと読んでいませんでした。

 

しかし、ひとたび読み始めると、

この本は

科学を含めた未来、生物学を含めた過去の部分から記載している

まさに学問分野をはるかに超えた、最後には今の私たちに問いかける書籍。

 

ここから学べること、いや、学ばなければいけないことが見えてくるはずです。

また一人のサピエンスとして理解する義務さえあるのではないかと感じました。

 

日本史・世界史・ヨーロッパ史など、地域別の括りのある表現はよく見ると思います。

その中には歴史の浅い国、古代からの歴史のある地域など、どこからを遡っていくかは異なっていますよね。

歴史書の内容は主に書物に残っているものであったり、さらに過去へさかのぼると、地層から想像される生き物、古墳などから想定されることになります。ですので、文明などが発達した時代にクローズアップして示されているものが多い。

 

まずこの本は他の歴史書とは異なり、なんと、地球のはじまり、45億年前から記載されています。

そのため、上下巻と分かれています。

さらには、人類をどこから認識しているのか?

 

人類=ホモサピエンス ではない。

このように定めることにより、歴史tの概念さえも覆ります。

我々が歴史を理解しようとしているのは人間本位の身勝手なものであったことに気付かされます。

 

600万年前、ホモ属(ヒト)とチンパンジーはほぼ同じだったといわれています。

そこからいろいろなホモ属が生まれ、異なる人類種が進化した。

そして20万年前、我々の祖先、ホモサピエンスも生まれます。

サピエンス=賢き者という意味。

1万3千年前、ホモサピエンスが唯一の人類になった。

ホモサピエンスはあくまでも人類の一種であり、他の人類(ネアンデルタール人など)を滅ぼすことによってホモサピエンスが生き残ったということになります。

 

祖先がなぜ生き残ったのかということを考えると、言語を扱い、二足歩行を行うことにより、手で道具を使うことになったから

というのはお決まりの理由。

 

しかし、実際にネアンデルタール人の方が脳みそは大きく、ホモサピエンスと同様に、道具・言語も使っていたことを示す事実もわかっている。

では、同じ人類のネアンデルタール人などの他の人類とホモサピエンスの違いは何なのか。

それを筆者は、認知革命という言葉で表している。

認知革命というのは、言語を操るのは動物でも敵の接近を仲間に伝えたりしているため、人類特有とすらいえない。

ホモサピエンスは他の人類には真似できなかった、唯一、

虚構(フィクション)を作ることができた人類であったということ

元々、生き物は見たことがあるもの・この世に存在するものに関してはいえる。

例えば、ペンがある。1本ある、2本あるなど。

しかし、ペンがないことを言おうとは思わなかったということ。

まさにそのあたりは仏教における”空(くう)”というものに近いだろう。

数学の分野を飛躍的に発展させてくれたのは、あれだけ発展した古代エジプト・ギリシアなどの他の国ではなく、インドである。101を示すためには、真ん中の0が必須である。十の位が無ければ11でしかないのだ。それはまさに、空(くう)の境地を理解しているが故なのだと思う。(このあたりを話し始めると止まらないので、また別の記事で・・)

 

そして、ホモサピエンスは、見たこともない、想像上の産物を作り上げた。

そのストーリー(見たこともない生き物の存在)を作って、その情報を共有して、理解することにで彼らは一致団結したのである。

 

それまでの人類は家族同士)でしか信用できなかった。

そこで虚構(フィクション)を作り上げることにより、

あの山の上には精霊がいて、その精霊に守られているんだ。

だから私たち、山のふもとの人々はみんなで協力しなければいけないんだ。

このようにして家族よりもさらに大きなコミュニティ作りをし始めたのだ。

 

空想・妄想世界、フィクションを作ることによって、地球最強の種族に押し上げたのだ。

しかし、このフィクションはその後もホモサピエンスを最強たらしめるのだ。

それに相俟って、農業革命が起こるのだ。

まさにこの2つの革命が重なることにより、狩猟による移動生活・安定しない食料問題により家族を簡単に増やすことができない時代から、農業を行うことによる定住生活・安定した食料の確保が可能になることによる人間の増加。

さらにコミュニティは大きくなり、国をいうものを作り上げる。シナジー(相乗)効果だ。

まさにこの国家というものも虚構の一つに過ぎない。実際にそのような分断があるわけでもないが分断のようなものを個人が認識し、自分はそれ以外のどこにも属さないような認識を持つのである。

さらには、お金という紙きれに価値を持たせ、みんながそれに理解を示すことにより流通が活発になる。

まさに文明の始まりである。

実際に今私たちが信じているお金を作っている国家でさえも先ほど述べた通り、虚構にすぎない。

我々は虚構の上に虚構を作り上げ、壮大なフィクションに囲まれて生きているのだ。

 

そしてフィクションの代表例が、宗教である。

ここで大切なことは信者からするとそれは虚構ではなく真実であるということである。

そしてそのストーリーを信じて、チームを作りあげるということ。

 

さらにフィクションはまだまだ続く。

ホモサピエンスのすごいところは、虚構を入れ替えられるということだ。

今の今まで信じていたものを思考することで納得する理由が見つかれば簡単に異なる虚構を信じ始めることができるというところだ。

つまりアプリのように簡単にアップデート可能であるということだ。

 

最強のフィクションが宗教である。日本人にはあまり理解できない部分があるが、人生の全てをささげるレベルでのフィクションである。

 

そして、今から500年前。

科学革命

私たちを大きく変える。

 

虚構を信じ続け、全ては聖書に書かれていると信じていた人々は気付くのである。

”無知の自覚”を

世界はもっともっと広くて複雑かもしれないことがわかってくる

そこで気付かされる、聖書との矛盾。

アメリカ大陸の発見などの事実が知られる。

まだ聖書に書いていないことがある。

知りたいという欲求。

それは虚構ではなく、観察と数学的な証明によっての情報であり、聖書を読むことでは救われない。

宗教の世界観と科学の矛盾

ここで、今まで作り上げた虚構が崩れはじめる。

まさに、文化は残り続けるが、フィクションは崩れ始めたのだ。

そこで各国は国の繁栄を考えた。

帝国主義の始まりだ。

 

その後、宗教フィクションの代わりに、イデオロギーが生まれた。所謂、社会思想のようなものだ。

資本主義(お金を稼ぐ・利潤の追求→幸せになれる→みんなで頑張ろう)

社会主義(平等こそが幸せ)

進化主義(優れたものが弱いものを淘汰することで人類は進化する)

といったような思想が生まれる。

言葉通り、これもまたフィクションなのである。

 

アダムスミスの国富論やマルクスの資本論など。

多くの資本主義に関する書籍が残っている。

 

 

科学の発展による医療の進化

核兵器開発による侵略戦争の減少

犯罪率の低下

GDPの増大。

素晴らしい成長を遂げたのである。

こうして、ホモサピエンスは他の人類を滅ぼし、他の生き物の居場所を奪い取り、家畜やペットとして多くの生き物を人間のコントロール下においた。

 

そこで筆者はこう続ける。

ホモサピエンスはすごいですね。

そこでホモサピエンスである読者に尋ねるのである。

 

さあ、ここまで進化し続けた人類は幸せですか?

 

今世の中は、生命工学・サイボーグ工学(人間の機能拡張)に焦点を当てている。

これから、人間はどのルートの先においてもサピエンスはサピエンスとは何かというものを考えさせられるだろう。

今、実際に環境問題について、そして生き物をコントロール下に置いていると思っていた我々はウイルスによって大切な人を失うのである。

我々ホモサピエンスが他の人類・生き物におこなってきたように。

 

そろそろ幸福とは何かを、改めてホモサピエンスは考えなければいけないのである。

 

ここまで傲慢なホモサピエンスの終わりがもうすぐそこまでやってきているのではないかと考えると、今日から変わらなければならないのである。

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