長文読解の基礎

長文読解対策 基本のき

高校入試にしても中学入試にしおいても、英語の試験の中で長文問題の中で、一文を訳せといった問題は頻出である。

 

そういった問題の時によく見受けられる答案がある。

 

それは、英語の文を日本語訳する際に、日本語ですら理解できない文を書いてしまう人がいるということだ。

 

正直そんなことを長文問題のルールとして書かれている所を見たことがない。

文法や、イディオム、訳す方法などは覚えていればできるし、覚えていなければ想像してできなければどうしようもない訳である。

 

では、日本語訳の問題に関して何を求めているのだろうか。

学生はとりあえず覚えているイディオム・文法事項・語句の意味をお披露目するような暗記大会だと勘違いしていないだろうか。

それもまた部分的な暗記をアピールして何になるというのだろうか。

 

求めているのは日本語力である。

例えわからない単語があったとしてもその一文で自分はこの英文を書いた人の考えを理解できているということをアピールすべきだと思っている。

おおまかな内容を理解した上でその文章の中で、今から日本語訳する文はどのような役割を果たしているのだろうかと考えることが重要なのである。

 

答案に書くのは英語ではなく日本語であるのだから。

 

 

以前、勤めていた塾の英語講師の先生が体調を崩していて代わりに試験の採点をしていた時に私の採点基準が厳しすぎてびっくりするくらい注意を受けたことがある。

しかし未だにその注意には納得できていない。

 

日本語訳を読んで、途中途中の単語がつかめているかどうかなんていう細かいことよりも先に日本語として通じているかどうかを確認し、その時点でこの日本語おかしいなと思ったら0点にした。

 

その生徒たちは私が数学で担当していたクラスの生徒であるからその子たちのことはよく理解できている。

しかし、知らない生徒の答案を見て、この子は、第一言語であるはずの日本語すら上手く書けないのだろうかと思われるということである。

自分ですら理解できない言葉を答案に書くという行為は採点基準も満たさないと考えている。

 

高校生の時にわからない単語の意味や文法などは放っておいてとにかくその他の部分から読み取れる筆者の考えを元に言いたいことを意訳し続けて、ようやく長文で点数をとれるようになってきた記憶がある。

 

まず、長文をする前に言いたいことは一つである。

 

意味の通った文章を必ず書くということである。

 

どうやってこう訳すのかあんまりわからないけれども言いたいことは理解できている。

それこそコミュニケーションに一番大切なものであり、そこの評価を高めることが、英語学習において一番大切なことであると私は考える。

 

 

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